The Joy family has its roots in and around Hebden, located in the beautiful Upper Wharfedale Valley; their lives and times are described in my book, Liverpool Cowkeepers. However, the Joys were not the only cowkeeping family in Liverpool to originate from Wharfedale. Listed below are details of some of these others. The list includes families originating from villages within the wider catchment area of the River Wharfe. [Information about the Tennant and Thwaite families was kindly provided by Nicola Thwaite – thanks, Nicola].
BERESFORD — Henry Beresford was born in 1838 to George and Mary who were farming at Raisgill, Buckden. By 1871 he was married to Alice and working for Elisabeth Foster as a Farm Manager at Beckermonds, Buckden. When their second child was born, in 1874, the family were living at 57 Poplar Street in the Liverpool district of Everton and Henry’s occupation is given as Cowkeeper. They had five children at their Everton address and were still living there in 1891. However, by the time of the 1901 census, Henry and his wife had moved to Blackburn, where he was working as a Grocer.
BROWN — George Brown was born in Arncliffe in 1839 and was the son of farmer John Brown and his wife Nanny (nee Ibbotson). In 1870 he was a Cowkeeper living at 2 Lully Street in Liverpool, when he married Hannah Maria Joy. Hannah Maria was born in Hebden in 1834 and was one of seven children of Anthony Joy and Maria Bowdin. In 1861, Hannah Maria was living in Liverpool at 78 Sawney Pope Street, Vauxhall, working for Marmaduke Drake, a Victualler from Kettlewell (who was married to Sarah Bailey Eglin, from Grassington). However, at the time of her marriage to George, Hannah Maria was staying with her sister, Margaret Metcalfe, who had also married a Cowkeeper and was living at 20 Luke Street, Liverpool. By 1881, George and Hannah Maria had moved out of the city and were farming at North Meols, near Ormskirk. But, by 1891 they had returned to Yorkshire and were farming near Silsden. They never had children.
CALVERT — William Preston Calvert, originally from Yokenthwaite, farmed at Flasby-with-Winterburn (1851) before becoming a Liverpool Cowkeeper. By the time of the 1861 census he was running a dairy at 2 Knight Street assisted by brother Robert Calvert, sister Elizabeth Calvert and niece Ellen Calvert. When he married Mary Read, at St Bride’s Church In 1866, he was a Cowkeeper at 75 Heath Street. In 1881 and 1891 he was running a dairy at 15 Brook Road. However, by 1901 he was a Retired Cowkeeper living at 18 Cambridge Road. He died in 1910.
CALVERT — Robert Calvert was still living and working at his brother's Knight Street dairy when he married Sarah Cowper, in 1863. Originally from Malham, Sarah was the daughter of Samuel Cowper, who had previously been a Cowkeeper at the Knight Street property (1851). Robert went on to keep cows at 2 Rockwood Street (1871) and then at 21 Keble Street (1881). When he retired, his son, William Cowper Calvert, continued the family business. In 1887, William married Elizabeth Wilkinson at St Mary’s Church, West Derby. He ran a succession of dairies: a Milk Dealer at 2 Holme Street (1891), a Cowkeeper at 1-3 Neilson Road (1901), and a Dairyman at 13 Valkyrie Road, Birkenhead (1911).
CALVERT — Harriet Preston Calvert followed her two brothers to Liverpool. She married Allan Layfield and they farmed at Yarnet House, Denton (1851) and also at Gouthwaite Hall, Pately Bridge (1861) before relocating, with their five children, to become city cowkeepers. In 1871 they were living at 42 Almond Street, near the city centre. Although Allan died in 1877, Harriet continued to keep cows at Almond Street. When she died in 1882, her son, Matthias Layfield, succeeded her and continued the family’s cowkeeping tradition, eventually diversifying into general grocery sales.
CONSTANTINE — in 1829, Richard Constantine was born into a farming family in Appletreewick. His father was Richard Constantine and his mother was Ellen Hebden and he was one of six children. In 1863 he married his cousin Elizabeth Mary Constantine, in Bolton. Their first two children died as infants. But, by the time their third child, Mary Alice Constantine, was born, in 1867, they had relocated to Liverpool. Sadly, Richard’s wife died a year later. The census of 1871 has Richard living at 15 Barlow Street along with his daughter; his occupation is given as Dairyman. In January 1881, when Richard married Ellen Clark, the family had moved to 11-13 Rachel Street. Later that year, Ellen gave birth to a son, George Constantine. By 1894 (directory) the family had left Rachel Street. Their next property was 164 Westminster Road. There, Richard’s occupation is first recorded as being a Milk Dealer (1881 census) and then as Milk Contractor (1901 census). In 1908 Mary Alice, who was in her 42nd year, married her cousin and widower, Frederick Stockdale — a Grocer from Hebden. Following Richard’s death, in October 1910, Mary Alice and husband Frederick continued to live at Westminster Road running it as a Grocery.
DAGGETT — the son of Aaron and Betty Daggett, John William was born in 1856 at Rams Close, Hartlington, Burnsall. In 1877 he married Ann Hawley (Hullah) from Burnsall and soon afterwards their first child was born. However, their next six children, born between 1879 and 1890, were all born in Liverpool as John and his family had set up a cowkeeping business at 20 Duke Street in the district of Garston. By the time of the 1891 census, John had returned to Yorkshire and was farming at Heaver Close in Upper Stonebeck. Later, he returned to Wharfedale to farm at Grimwith House, Appletreewick.
DUGDILL — Robert Dugdill was born in Rylstone in 1835, the son of Matthew Dugdill and Mary Carr. He married Elizabeth Sharp and they went on to farm 272 acres at Moorhouse, Paythorne (1881). By 1891 (census) the couple had moved to Liverpool with their four Yorkshire-born children (Arabella, Matthew Henry, Margaret and Robert) and were keeping cows at 3-5 Lyell Street. Although Robert died in January 1900, Elizabeth continued the family business in Lyell Street, assisted by her son, Matthew Henry, and both are recorded as being Cowkeepers in the 1901 census. When Elizabeth died, in 1908, Matthew took over the running of the dairy, assisted by his sister, Margaret (1911 census). On 5th August 1919, Matthew married Mary Alice/Annie Rutter at St Nicholas Church, Liverpool. Mary was the daughter of Cowkeeper Richard Rutter. The couple had two children, both born at the Lyell Street dairy: Robert Sharp Dugdill (b. 1920) and Dorothy Eleanor Dugdill (b. 1922). When Matthew died, in 1935, he was living at 20 The Croft, Town Row.
ENGLAND — Arthur Widdop (b. 1869) and Harry (b. 1871) England were two of twelve children born to John and Phoebe England of Addingham. In 1895 Harry married Mary Eleanor Holmes and by the time she had given birth to the first of three children, in 1897, they were living at 57 Waterworks Street in the Liverpool district of Bootle working as Cowkeepers. In the meantime, Arthur married Ann Elizabeth Summerscale of Addingham. The birth details of their ten children suggest that Arthur followed his brother to Liverpool sometime during 1904-05. He also became a cowkeeper and his family lived at 22 Rugby Road (1911 census) in the Aintree district. The two England brothers remained in Liverpool until the end of their days; Arthur died in 1939 and Harry in 1935.
HARDACRE -- Thomas Hardacre (1844-1872) was one of five children of Thomas Hardacre (1809-1847) and Elizabeth Birch (1809-1898). When Thomas Snr died, prematurely, at the age of 38, Elizabeth moved the family to live with her widower father, Ellis Birch (1785-1863) who was farming at Hebden. So, Thomas and his siblings grew up, living and working at their grandfather’s farm. Perhaps it was the death of his grandfather, in 1863, that prompted Thomas to try something different. The 1871 census records Thomas as a Cowkeeper living at 77 Lovatt Street in the Edge Hill district of Liverpool. At the time, he was entertaining a visitor - Orlando John Joy, who was by then related to Thomas through the marriage of Orlando’s sister, Mary Ann Joy, and Thomas’s brother, Jeremiah Hardacre. (Orlando had been a Cowkeeper at this property when the 1861 census had taken place). Unfortunately, it seems that Thomas’s career as a cowkeeper never had the opportunity to blossom as, like his father, he suffered a premature death. He died in 1872, at the age of 28, and was buried at St Michael’s Church, Linton-in-Craven.
HARKER — James Harker, the son of James and Martha, was born in 1857. Originally, his family farmed near Grassington but later were farming at Ramsgill, Stonebeck Down (1891). In 1895 he married Mary Alice Suttill. By the time of the 1911 census they were living at 3 Poynty Street in the Kirkdale district of Liverpool where James was working as a cowkeeper. They had five children, all girls; the two youngest were born in Liverpool.
INMAN/BELL — Nanny (Ann) Inman was born in 1834 to John and Dorothy Inman. John was the Innkeeper at the Angler’s Inn, Burnsall, and a Farmer of 800 acres. In June 1873 Nanny married William Bell (1832-1883). William was the son of a farmer from Bank Top, Hebden; he went on to farm at Small Gill, Wiggleswick (1861) and then Pot House, Kirkby Malham (1871). Their son, John William Bell, was born in 1876 at Pot House and the family were still there for the 1881 census. However, following William’s death, in 1883, Nanny relocated to Liverpool. By 1891 (census) she was a Cowkeeper at 1 Sussex Street. When she died, in 1897, her son took over the business. But, by 1911 (census), John William Bell had left the city and was a Cowkeeper, living with a family of his own in Ormskirk.
METCALFE — John Metcalfe, (b. 1846) was one of eight children of James (Jas) and Nancy Metcalfe who farmed in Hebden. In 1868 he married Margaret Joy, daughter of Anthony and Maria (nee Bowdin). Their first daughter, Annie Maria, was born a year later and by that time the couple had already moved to Liverpool. John was a Cowkeeper and the family were living at 20 Luke Street; also living with them was John’s younger brother, Jeremiah (age 14). In 1881 the family were living in the Wavertree district at 2a Ash Grove - the opposite end of the street from Margaret’s cousin, George Joy, who also kept cows! By 1891 the family’s given address was 8 Ash Grove, though it is possible they were still using the business address at 2A. John and Margaret remained at 8 Ash Grove as cowkeepers (assisted by daughter Emily and son John) until their deaths in 1917 and 1918, respectively. Both are buried at All Saints Church, Wavertree.
METCALFE — James Metcalfe (b. 1853) was a younger brother of John (above). At the time of the 1881 census (3rd April), James was living at 73 Peach Street in the Mount Pleasant district of Liverpool. His occupation was given as ‘Cow Keeper (Dairyman)’ and he was living with his sisters Annie and Ellen and his eleven-year-old nephew, John Beck. However, on 8th August of that year James married a local girl, Catherine Forster. The couple went on to have three children, all born in Liverpool: Nancy (b. 1883), James (b.1888) and John (b.1892). In 1891, James and his family were living at 6 Sunningdale Road - not far from his brother’s house, in Wavertree. His occupation at that time was still given as ‘Cowkeeper’, but he was later to specialize in supplying stock to the cowkeeping community – he became a Cattle Dealer; firstly at 3 Sheil Place (1901) and then at 168 Brownlow Hill (1911).
PAWSON — John Pawson was born in 1850, the son of Joseph and Sara Pawson who were farming at Lane House, Buckden. In 1871 he married Ann Coates and they went on to have seven children together. They moved to Lancashire and farmed at Higher Folds, Sharples (1881) and Top o’ th’ Rake, Tottington Higher End, Bury (1891) before relocating to Liverpool. In 1901 John was working as a cowkeeper, living at 25 Sandy Lane in Bootle. Later, in 1911 the family had moved their business to 11 Cross Street, also in the district of Bootle.
SWINBANK — James Swinbank was born in Kettlewell in 1858. His parents were William Swinbank and Margaret Spence, who farmed 300 acres at East Scale Park. By 1888, James had moved to Liverpool where he married Aberdeen-born Elizabeth Wilson. The 1891 census has James as a Cowkeeper living with his wife and their daughter, Elizabeth, at 63 Freeland Street. Sadly, Elizabeth died later that year. When their second child, Ethel Mary, was baptised at St Michael’s Church, Garston, in November 1893, James was a Farm Manager and the family were living at 56 Earp Street, Garston. In 1901 James was a Cowman, living at 8 Hadstock Street, Wallasey, and then in 1911 was a Farm Bailiff, living at Elm Cottage, Hoole, Chester. He died in 1937.
SWINBANK — Jane Swinbank was born in 1860 in Hawkswick and was one of nine children of Septimus Robert Swinbank and his wife Isabella (nee Fawcett). The family farmed in various locations around the Pennine Dales before moving to Liverpool in 1872. Following the death of Septimus Robert, in 1875, the family continued with the cowkeeping business. The censuses of 1881 and 1891 record them keeping cows at 64 Albion Street in the Everton district. By the time of the 1901 census the family had moved to 3 The Willows, also in Everton. Isabella had retired and Jane was running the business with her brother Christopher and sister Alice. After the deaths of their mother (1906) and brother (1911), Jane and Alice continued to live at 3 The Willows. For the 1911 census they both gave their occupation as ‘Retired Cowkeeper’. Jane died in Liverpool in January 1934.
TENNANT — Christopher Tennant (b. 1869) was born in Foxup, the son of farmer, Christopher and his wife Ann. When his mother died, nine-year-old Christopher went to live with his maternal uncle, Richard Haythornthwaite, who was a Cowkeeper in Liverpool. Christopher grew up living and working at his uncle’s cowhouse at 5 Victoria Place, Whitefield Road, Everton. When, in 1900, he married Mary Jane Preston, he was living and working as a ‘Dairyman’ at 45 Back Lane - a dairy run by Isabella Harrison, widow, originally from Mossdale Head, Wensleydale. But, a year later, he and his wife were living at 81 Whitefield Road. Here, Christopher remained, working as a Cowkeeper, until the end of his days. He died in 1933, age 63.
THWAITE — Thomas Thwaite was born in Kettlewell in 1842 and was the son of Richard and Elizabeth (nee Heseltine). In 1864 he married Jane Sandham [also known as Jane Durham]. Although their first child was born in Kettlewell, in 1866, by the time their second child was born, in November 1870, the family had relocated to Sandy Lane, Walton-on-the-Hill, Liverpool and Thomas was working as a Cowkeeper. Thomas subsequently traded from at least two further addresses in Liverpool: 2A Whitefield Lane, Everton (1878) and 2 Parkinson Road, Walton-on-the-Hill (1880). After a number of unsuccessful business ventures, Thomas eventually returned to the farming way of life - first, at Chapel Green in Walden (1901) and then at Middle Cross, Lumb, in Rossendale (1911). He died in 1925, age 83.
TOMLINSON — Thomas Tomlinson and his wife Ann (nee Spencer) were both born in Arncliffe, in 1811 and 1823, respectively. They married in March 1844 and went on to have four sons. The first two children were both born in Conistone: Thomas Tenant Carter, in 1848; and, James, in 1850. By the time their third son, Robert, was born, in 1855, they had relocated to Liverpool to keep cows. In 1861 Ann was a widow, keeping cows at 19 Bailey Street. Living with her were her four sons. The youngest, John Henry Tomlinson, was only six months old. It seems that only the eldest son, Thomas Tenant Carter, continued in the family business of cowkeeping (1870 directory), but by 1871 he had moved out of Bailey Street and his occupation was then that of 'Carter'.